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doi: 10.1115/1.2825978. Handbook Tribol. A. Thermal cooling becomes one of the main focuses of the advanced industries such as microelectronics, transportation, manufacturing, and metrology. Power electronics require their own cooling loop including: heat exchanger, pump, and radiator. ASME J. A high electrical conductivity of the liquid leads to a higher chance of current leaking. In certain situations, the addition of specific dispersants decreased the efficacy of nanoparticles (Tung and Shaw, 2012; Tung, 2015; Chen et al., 2019). It should match with the future EV/Hybrid vehicle requirements. Cambridge doi: 10.3390/lubricants7010007, Wrenick, S., Sutor, P., Pangilinan, H., and Schwartz, E. E. (2006). Marker Address Rent Value ; A. Recently Tung and his associates (Tung, 2019a,b) have investigated the coolant flow and temperature distribution to control thermal management in fuel cell system as shown in the following Figures 9, 10. For the oxide particles that were larger than 10 nm, surface salinization proved to be a much better option due to its higher grafting density and versatility. doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2016.05.020, Farfan-Cabrera, L. I. b. Immersion of battery cells in a dielectric fluid. Phys. Referring to Berman's work how nanographene lubricants compares to other types of hard coatings like DLC, nanographene particles can attach to a steel surface with relatively weak van der Waals forces. Table 8. Mallikaratchy PR, Ruggiero A, Gardner JR, Kuryavyi V, Maguire WF, Heaney ML, McDevitt MR; Patel DJ, Scheinberg DA. Furthermore, the OEM industry ought to implement a wire corrosion test (OECD, 2019; Tung, 2019a,b) because electrical components due to strayed voltages or energized circuits can promote corrosion that would normally not occur. Smaller machineries in vehicles translate to an improved efficiency, resulting in money savings for consumers, and reduced gas emissions, which results in a cleaner environment. Find Alessandro Ruggiero movies, filmography, bio, co stars, photos, news and tweets. In addition, automotive lubricants for electrified propulsion system must function as an effective coolant, reduce corrosion of copper windings, composites, and rare earth magnetic materials while upholding wear and oxidation protection and energy efficiency. (2001). High conduction risks current leakage would be vastly dangerous for anyone who contacts the charged parts. Tribological Characteristics of Stabilized Zirconia Nanolubricants. Appl. Trans. Nanofluids or nano lubricants (such as nanographene) will be ideal to apply for thermal cooling of EV/hybrid components. In general, those dispersants are amphiphilic molecules which have both lipophobic and lipophilic functional groups. OECD (2019) estimates, that the global raw material extraction will increase from 92.1 billion of metric tons (MT) in 2017 to 167 billion of MT until 2060 (United Nations Environment, 2019). doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.075, Berman, D., Erdemir, A., and Sumant, A. V. (2018). The advanced drivetrain configuration developed by OEMs (Tung and Wong, 2018; Tung, 2019a,b; Society for Tribologists Lubrication Engineers (STLE) 2020 Report, 2020) have allowed the hybrid engine to operate over a much more expanded range of operating parameters. Articles. Zhang, S.-W., and Xie, Y.-B., (eds.). Articles, EV/Hybrid Automotive Driveline Lubricant Development and Standardization of Lubricant Testing Requirements, Thermal Management and Cooling Need for Hybrid/EV, Development of Next Generation Coolants for Meeting Future Cooling Challenges in EV/Hybrid Vehicle Applications, Applications of Nanofluids for Meeting Future Challenges in EV/Hybrid Vehicle Cooling Applications,, Society for Tribologists Lubrication Engineers (STLE) 2020 Report, The Delegated Act on low/high ILUC Biofuels, 2019,,,,,,,,,,/,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Ruggiero A, Villa CH, Holland JP, Sprinkle SR, May C, Lewis JS, Scheinberg DA, McDevitt MR. J. Nanoparticle Res. Moving to a lower viscosity reduces churning and pumping losses, increasing efficiency. The importance of tribology for the global society is as follows: a. Fuel cell membrane needs to be maintained at lower temperatures than IC engines. Liquid cooled systems typically use glycol/water cooling fluids for cold freezing and corrosion protection. (Eastman et al., 1999), Das et al. Front. However, it lacks thermal and oxidative stability limiting it at extreme temperatures (Farfan-Cabrera, 2019). 2. Eng., 20 October 2020 Coming research activities in innovative driveline fluids will be focused on minimizing friction loss and maximizing hybrid component durability. Therefore, scientists have had to invent or implement alternative materials and solutions to sustain the low friction, functionalities and reliability counted on from the components indicated.

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