battle of brandywine aftermath
Moving out around 5:30 AM, Knyphausen's men moved along the road towards Chadd's Ford and pushed back American skirmishers led by Brigadier General William Maxwell. Washington conferred with Greene and Knox, the latter of whom was head of artillery, in the yard of the William Brinton house. Washington employed General John Armstrong, commanding about 1,000 Pennsylvania militia, to cover Pyle's Ford, 5.8 miles south of Chadds Ford, which was covered by Major Generals Anthony Wayne's and Nathanael Greene's divisions.  Another British officer wrote that, "The Enemy had 502 dead in the field". This new line was under the oversight of Sullivan and command of his division devolved to Brigadier General Preudhomme de Borre. Most of their horses had died… The last campaigns of the war took place in the southern colonies. Arriving at Kennett Square to the southwest, Howe concentrated his army and assessed the American position. General Stephen was the only American general to escape capture at Brandywine, reaching Chester, Pennsylvania shortly after midnight with the remnants of the Continental Army. A secondary Hessian flanking force trapped Sullivan's division against the river, impeding retreat. News of the major loss and Washington's capture preceded them, and Stephen arrived on the 18th to find an evacuated city. The battle was fought at mid-morning around the meeting house while the pacifist Quakers continued to hold their midweek service. The north lacked a unifying figure or body to replace the Congress or Washington. In late August 1777, after a distressing 34-day journey from Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey, a Royal Navy fleet of more than 260 ships carrying some 17,000 British troops under the command of British General Sir William Howe landed at the head of the Elk River, on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay near present-day Elkton, Maryland (then known as Head of Elk), approximately 40–50 miles (60–80 km) southwest of Philadelphia. Howe's army departed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey, across New York Bay from the occupied town of New York City on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, on July 23, 1777, and landed near present-day Elkton, Maryland, at the point of the "Head of Elk" by the Elk River at the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, at the southern mouth of the Susquehanna River.  Only 40 of the British Army's casualties were Hessians. The resulting fight was one of the longest one-day battles of the war and saw the British force Washington's men to retreat. Encountering Wayne's Pennsylvanians and Maxwell's light infantry, he was able to slowly push the outnumbered Americans back. To their left, covering Pyle's Ford, were around 1,000 Pennsylvania militia led by Major General John Armstrong. As the British lines advanced the Hessian Jaegers threatened to flank the American right forcing Stephen and Stirling to shift right. Supported by the remnants of Sullivan's line and Colonel Henry Knox's artillery, Washington and Greene slowed the British advance and allowed the rest of the army to withdraw. In the wake of this engagement, Washington moved from a defensive line behind Red Clay Creek, DE north to a new line behind the Brandywine River in Pennsylvania. It was determined that Knox would deploy artillery to slow the British advance. The Battle of Brandywine was fought between the American Army under General George Washington and a British force under General William Howe at Chadds Ford on the Brandywine River in Pennsylvania.  On September 14, about 350 wounded Americans were taken from the British camp at Dilworth to a newly established hospital at Wilmington, Delaware. On the far right of the American line, detached from Stirling, was a brigade under Colonel Moses Hazen which had been assigned to watch Wistar's and Buffington's Fords. Having formed his army, Washington was confident that he had barred the way to Philadelphia. Hill overlooking Sandy Hollow, where Gen. Stephen's Division deployed on the far right flank of the Continental Army. He instead employed a flanking maneuver, similar to that used in the Battle of Long Island. Turning south, they advanced to high ground on Osborne's Hill and were in position to strike the American rear. The nearest thing to a hard figure from the American side was by Major General Nathanael Greene, who estimated that Washington's army had lost between 1,200 and 1,300 men. Among the American wounded was the newly arrived Marquis de Lafayette. By 5 pm, Washington and Greene arrived with reinforcements, but found the American army fleeing fire from their own artillery, which had been captured by the British at Meeting House Hill after the artillery horses were killed. Evening was approaching and, in spite of the early start Cornwallis had made in the flanking maneuver, most of the American army was able to escape.  Marching north, the British Army brushed aside American light forces in a few skirmishes. The British forces routed the Continental Army and forced them to withdraw, first, to the City of Chester, Chester, Pennsylvania, and then northeast toward Philadelphia. Posted on August 11, 2014 by Karen Furst Posted in Events . Remember, the British had only landed in Maryland a little over two weeks earlier. After a stiff fight, Howe's wing broke through the newly formed American right wing which was deployed on several hills. Major General John Sullivan's division extended northward along the Brandywine's east banks, covering the high ground north of Chadds Ford along with Major General Adam Stephen's division and Major General Lord Stirling's divisions. Entering the Chesapeake, the fleet traveled north and the army landed at Head of Elk, MD on August 25, 1777. General George Washington had situated the American forces, about 20,300-strong, between Head of Elk and Philadelphia. Here Washington placed troops under Major General Nathanael Greene and Brigadier General Anthony Wayne. Further north, Greene sent Brigadier General George Weedon's troops to cover the road just outside the town of Dilworth to hold off the British long enough for the rest of the Continental Army to retreat. As they were forming their lines north of Dilworth, Howe launched his attack. It is part of the site of the Battle of Brandywine fought on September 11, 1777, during the American Revolution. Moving out around 5:00 AM, Cornwallis' column crossed the West Branch of the Brandywine at Trimble's Ford, then turned east and crossed the East Branch at Jeffrie's Ford. Aftermath . This entailed sending a force to fix Washington in place while marching with the bulk of the army around the American flank. , The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for. The militia, never engaging in battle, broke rank and fled before facing the British. On September 9, Washington positioned detachments to guard other fords above and below Chadds Ford, hoping to force the battle there. Finally arriving on the opposite bank from the American position, Knyphausen's men began a desultory artillery bombardment. Although Howe had defeated the American army, his lack of cavalry prevented its total destruction. Washington chose to defend Chadds Ford, a safe passage across the Brandywine River on the road between Baltimore and Philadelphia. For around ninety minutes heavy fighting swirled around the Birmingham Meeting House and what is now known as Battle Hill with the British slowly pushing the Americans back. Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 109th Field Artillery. His own division he left under the command of Preudhomme de Borre, with orders to shift to the right in order to link up with Stirling and Stephen's divisions (from left to right the divisions were arranged as Sullivan, Stirling, Stephen). Greene's reinforcements, combined with the remnants of Sullivan's, Stephen's, and Stirling's divisions, formed south of Dilworth and stopped the pursuing British for nearly an hour, letting the rest of the army retreat. While part of his army demonstrated in front of Chadds Ford, Howe took the bulk of his troops on a long march that crossed the Brandywine far beyond Washington's right flank.
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