etymology of earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. , The main part of Earth's magnetic field is generated in the core, the site of a dynamo process that converts the kinetic energy of thermally and compositionally driven convection into electrical and magnetic field energy. ", "How Are Fossil Fuels Extracted From the Ground?  The bodies in the Solar System formed and evolved with the Sun. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. As a result, the mean annual air temperature at sea level decreases by about 0.4 °C (0.7 °F) per degree of latitude from the equator. If I said 'I live on Mars', this would mean that I was in an artificial habitat. At higher latitudes, the sunlight reaches the surface at lower angles, and it must pass through thicker columns of the atmosphere. Local differences in topography, geology, and deeper tectonic structure cause local and broad, regional differences in Earth's gravitational field, known as gravity anomalies. Other notable plates include the Arabian Plate, the Caribbean Plate, the Nazca Plate off the west coast of South America and the Scotia Plate in the southern Atlantic Ocean. Due to this motion, on average it takes 24 hours—a solar day—for Earth to complete a full rotation about its axis so that the Sun returns to the meridian. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. In Germanic mythology, which includes Old Norse and Anglo-Saxon legends among others, Middengeard or Midgard (as you’ve heard it told in stories and Marvel movies) is one of the Nine Worlds and the only one visible to humankind, it is surrounded by an impassable ocean, which is inhabited by the sea serpent Jormungandr, who is so huge that he encircles the world and grasps his own tail like a massive ouroboros. ", Occasionally, the name Terra /ˈtɛrə/ is used in scientific writing and especially in science fiction to distinguish humanity's inhabited planet from others, while in poetry Tellus /ˈtɛləs/ has been used to denote personification of the Earth. The most important mineral that it contains (by far) is water.  Below the ocean's surface are much of the continental shelf, mountains, volcanoes, oceanic trenches, submarine canyons, oceanic plateaus, abyssal plains, and a globe-spanning mid-ocean ridge system. The field extends outwards from the core, through the mantle, and up to Earth's surface, where it is, approximately, a dipole.  The earliest direct evidence of life on Earth is contained in 3.45 billion-year-old Australian rocks showing fossils of microorganisms. ( Log Out / It is professional enough to satisfy academic standards, but accessible enough to be used by anyone.  Many places are subject to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, blizzards, floods, droughts, wildfires, and other calamities and disasters. This hypothesis has been termed "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest because it preceded the Cambrian explosion, when multicellular life forms significantly increased in complexity. , Earth's mass is approximately 5.97×1024 kg (5,970 Yg).  Earth's fate is less clear. The inner layer, known as the mantle, makes up 84% of the Earth's volume and consists primarily of iron oxides (magnetite is one example). Atmospheric circulation, topographic features, and temperature differences determine the average precipitation that falls in each region.  The ring current is defined by medium-energy particles that drift relative to the geomagnetic field, but with paths that are still dominated by the magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts are formed by high-energy particles whose motion is essentially random, but contained in the magnetosphere. This is interesting given that every other name for a celestial object which has at least dual meanings seems to imply an astronomical rather than geological context. ", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death", "Converting GPS Height into NAVD88 Elevation with the GEOID96 Geoid Height Model", "Exploring the Ocean Basins with Satellite Altimeter Data", "Did Edmund Hillary Climb the Wrong Mountain", "The five deeps: The location and depth of the deepest place in each of the world's oceans", "Is a Pool Ball Smoother than the Earth?  These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. , Thermal energy causes some of the molecules at the outer edge of the atmosphere to increase their velocity to the point where they can escape from Earth's gravity. This article is about the planet. , The seven major plates are the Pacific, North American, Eurasian, African, Antarctic, Indo-Australian, and South American. It's interesting that our word for this concept has a singular form and a plural form.  Partly due to the predominance of land mass, 90% of humans live in the Northern Hemisphere.  The Greek poetic name Gaea (Gæa) /ˈdʒiːə/ is rare, though the alternative spelling Gaia has become common due to the Gaia hypothesis, in which case its pronunciation is /ˈɡaɪə/ rather than the more Classical /ˈɡeɪə/. Just above the core is a thin layer of liquid known as the outer core.  By comparison, the oldest dated continental crust is 4,030 Ma, although zircons have been found preserved as clasts within Eoarchean sedimentary rocks that give ages up to 4,400 Ma, indicating that at least some continental crust existed at that time. From 1980 to 2000, these events caused an average of 11,800 human deaths per year. Greenhouse gases also play an important role in regulating the surface temperature. See: Due to natural fluctuations, ambiguities surrounding, The ultimate source of these figures, uses the term "seconds of UT1" instead of "seconds of mean solar time".—. The moon also maintains a nearly circular orbit around the Earth. Most fresh water, about 68.7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers. This effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt, and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern English word Earth developed, via Middle English, from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe. , The amount of solar energy reaching Earth's surface decreases with increasing latitude.  Common carbonate minerals include calcite (found in limestone) and dolomite. During the summer, the day lasts longer, and the Sun climbs higher in the sky. Paleontological evidence and computer simulations show that Earth's axial tilt is stabilized by tidal interactions with the Moon. - For millenniums, humans have tried to imagine the world in space. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific and is estimated to be 200 Ma old. Finally, the name earth is not only used to refer to the planet which we live on but also its entire universe. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, and dust (including primordial nuclides). From Earth itself comes earthly. Without this heat-retention effect, the average surface temperature would be −18 °C (0 °F), in contrast to the current +15 °C (59 °F), and life on Earth probably would not exist in its current form.  This facilitated tool use and encouraged communication that provided the nutrition and stimulation needed for a larger brain, which led to the evolution of humans. Today I found out how ‘Earth’ came to be called so. , Earth's atmosphere has no definite boundary, slowly becoming thinner and fading into outer space. At the same time, the upwelling of mantle material at divergent boundaries creates mid-ocean ridges. , During magnetic storms and substorms, charged particles can be deflected from the outer magnetosphere and especially the magnetotail, directed along field lines into Earth's ionosphere, where atmospheric atoms can be excited and ionized, causing the aurora. So, back to Earth’s etymology. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet, although Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto.  In total, about 550 people have visited outer space and reached orbit as of November 2018[update], and, of these, twelve have walked on the Moon. I've been pondering the nature of existence for a long time. Beyond these, the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere, where the geomagnetic fields interact with the solar wind. A blog about interactions with DMT Machine Elves and learning about the Tree of Life, Etymology, Gematria and Numerology. The remaining 29.2%, or 148.94 million km2 (57.51 million sq mi), not covered by water has terrain that varies greatly from place to place and consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms. The Machine Elves, God and Religion Connection.  The radius of the inner core is about one fifth of that of Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere, winter solstice currently occurs around 21 December; summer solstice is near 21 June, spring equinox is around 20 March and autumnal equinox is about 22 or 23 September. The (Etymological) Difference Between Tortoises and Turtles, The Etymology of Trivia: A Place Where Three Roads Meet, Out of This Word: The Origins of 5 Intergalactic Terms.  The oceans are also a reservoir of dissolved atmospheric gases, which are essential for the survival of many aquatic life forms. Moving outward from the mantle is a liquid outer core that accounts for about 15% of the Earth's volume.
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