what happened during an air raid ww2
Civilians left for more remote areas of the country. This was a wooden construction with a corrugated iron cover, most of the structure being deep in the ground with about a fifth above the ground. Of the 38 children and 6 teachers killed by the bombing, 31 children and 1 teacher were buried together at Hither Green Cemetery in a civilian war dead plot. The Luftwaffe attacked the main Atlantic sea port of Liverpool in the Liverpool Blitz. The aerial bombing was now principally aimed at the destruction of industrial targets, but also continued with the objective of breaking the morale of the civilian population. We were about halfway along Bordesley Green East carriageway when we heard the planes coming nearer. In late autumn 1940, the Blitz spread beyond London to Britain's other major towns and cities. Interviewer: Tell me about those … Both of the city's main railway stations were hit, as was the bus station.  Late in the afternoon of 7 September 1940, the Germans began Operation London (Unternehmen Loge) (the codename for London) and Seeschlange (Sea Snake), the air offensives against London and other industrial cities. These are often referred to as the 'Christmas Blitz'. The Morrison was intended for use indoors so was suitable for those without gardens. Corum 1997, pp. Upsurges in population in south Wales and Gloucester intimated where these displaced people went. I found your account very moving. They believed the Luftwaffe had failed in precision attack and concluded the German example of area attack using incendiaries was the way forward for operations over Germany.  Based on experience with German strategic bombing during World War I against the United Kingdom, the British government estimated after the First World War that 50 casualties – with about one third killed – would result for every tonne of bombs dropped on London. Our ears straining for the hateful sounds of a siren, we continued to dance around the floor until the last waltz. KGr 100 increased its use of incendiaries from 13 to 28 percent. Both the RAF and Luftwaffe struggled to replace manpower losses, though the Germans had larger reserves of trained aircrew. From 1 September 1939, 'Blackout' was enforced.  This was not immediately apparent.  On 8 September the Luftwaffe returned; 412 people were killed and 747 severely wounded. The Air Raid Warden Service was part of that. A German fighter-bomber dropped a single 500-kilogram (1,100 lb) bomb on the school at 12:30 pm, killing 38 children (32 killed at the school and 6 more died in hospital) and 6 staff and injuring another 60 people. The bombing effort was diluted by attacks against several sets of industries instead of constant pressure on the most vital.  Still, while heavily damaged, British ports continued to support war industry and supplies from North America continued to pass through them while the Royal Navy continued to operate in Plymouth, Southampton, and Portsmouth. The Air Raid Wardens Service was established in 1937 and over 44 million gas masks had been distributed by the outbreak of war in 1939. , In 1941, the Luftwaffe shifted strategy again. Curtains, cardboard and paint were used to prevent light escaping from houses, offices, factories or shops, which might be used by enemy bombers to locate their targets. The government initially tried to prevent London Underground stations being used as air raid shelters, fearing the development of a 'deep shelter mentality' and the potential disruption of the capital's transport network. At 4:56pm on 7 September 1940, the air raid sirens wailed as the German Air Force, the luftwaffe, launched a massive raid … With our hair all over the place and tired worn faces, legs fit to let us down any minute and crying into the bargain, we were a sorry sight I'm sure. The raid that night lasted for a long time and we emerged from the shelter when the 'All Clear' sounded at about 5:30am.  In 1939 military theorist Basil Liddell-Hart predicted that 250,000 deaths and injuries in Britain could occur in the first week of war. Wever's vision was not realised, staff studies in those subjects fell by the wayside and the Air Academies focused on tactics, technology and operational planning, rather than on independent strategic air offensives. 283–284; Murray 1983, pp. Lights were not allowed after dark for almost six years and the blackout became by far the most unpopular aspect of the war for civilians, even more than rationing. Find out how you can use this. Support for peace negotiations declined from 29% in February. Morale was not mentioned until the ninth wartime directive on 21 September 1940. The term was first used by the British press and is the German word for 'lightning'.. We all stood in a bunch at the front entrance of the hall and listened. Liverpool suffered 200 short tons (180 t) of bombs dropped.  The first group to use these incendiaries was Kampfgruppe 100 which despatched 10 "pathfinder" He 111s. Inside there were two long benches at either side and in between these we had room for a small table on which we stood a small oil lamp. The rate of civilian housing lost was averaging 40,000 people per week dehoused in September 1940. , By now, the imminent threat of invasion had all but passed as the Luftwaffe had failed to gain the prerequisite air superiority. Joyce Harrison: At school we had air raid trenches of course. It would prove formidable but its development was slow. The Luftwaffe flew 4,000 sorties that month, including 12 major and three heavy attacks. Ballroom dancing was the 'in thing' in those days and the girls would line up as the men did, on the opposite side of the room. As the war progressed, further provisions were made to try to protect civilians from air attack. As if it was yesterday I remember looking at Mollie and hesitating. Air raid warden helmets were painted white so that they .  Captured German air crews also indicated the homes of industrial workers were deliberately targeted. In coastal areas, ships were also blacked out to prevent them from being seen against the shore. Göring's lack of co-operation was detrimental to the one air strategy with potentially decisive strategic effect on Britain. The government up until November 1940, was opposed to the centralised organisation of shelter.  The Boulton Paul Defiant, despite its poor performance during daylight engagements, was a much better night fighter. , While the war was being planned, Hitler never insisted upon the Luftwaffe planning a strategic bombing campaign and did not even give ample warning to the air staff, that war with Britain or even Russia was a possibility. In the early days of the war, people were forbidden even to carry around torches. Street lighting and illuminated signs were extinguished and all vehicles had to put caps over their lights to dim them.  The raid against Coventry was particularly devastating, and led to widespread use of the phrase "to conventrate".
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